Here you will find most of the terms
and its description used on the Internet.
After typing your term please press "Search" button with your mouse or else it wont work!
Click on any of the letters to see its
term and description
-- (Advanced Digital Network)
Usually refers to a 56Kbps leased-line.
ADSL -- (Asymmetric
Digital Subscriber Line)
A DSL line where the upload speed is different from the
download speed. usually the download speed is much
A small Java program that can be embedded in an HTML page.
Applets differ from full-fledged Java applications in that
they are not allowed to access certain resources on the
local computer, such as files and serial devices (modems,
printers, etc.), and are prohibited from communicating
with most other computers across a network. The common
rule is that an applet can only make an Internet
connection to the computer from which the applet was sent.
A tool (software) for finding files stored on anonymous
FTP sites. You need to know the exact file name or a
substring of it. By 1999 Archie had been almost completely
replaced by web-based search engines. back when FTP was
the main way people moved files over the Internet Archie
was quite popular.
-- (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network)
The precursor to the Internet. Developed in the late 60's
and early 70's by the US Department of Defense as an
experiment in wide-area-networking to connect together
computers that were each running different system so that
people at one location could use computing resources from
-- (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
This is the defector world-wide standard for the code
numbers used by computers to represent all the upper and
lower-case Latin letters, numbers, punctuation, etc. There
are 128 standard ASCII codes each of which can be
represented by a 7 digit binary number: 0000000 through
A high-speed line or series of connections that forms a
major pathway within a network. The term is relative as a
backbone in a small network will likely be much smaller
than many non-backbone lines in a large network.
How much stuff you can send through a connection. Usually
measured in bits-per-second. A full page of English text
is about 16,000 bits. A fast modem can move about 57,000
bits in one second. Full-motion full-screen video would
require roughly 10,000,000 bits-per-second, depending on
In common usage the baud rate of a modem is how many
bitsit can send or receive per second. Technically, baud
is the number of times per second that the carrier signal
shifts value - for example a 1200 bit-per-second modem
actually runs at 300 baud, but it moves 4 bits per baud (4
x 300= 1200 bits per second).
-- (Bulletin Board System)
A computerized meeting and announcement system that allows
people to carry on discussions, upload and download files,
and make announcements without the people being connected
to the computer at the same time. In the early 1990's
there were many thousands (millions?) of BBS?s around the
world, most are very small, running on a single IBM clone
PC with 1 or 2 phone lines. Some are very large and the
line between a BBS and a system like AOL gets crossed at
some point, but it is not clearly drawn.
Information consisting entirely of ones and zeros. Also,
commonly used to refer to files that are not simply text
files, e.g. images.
-- (BINary HEXadecimal)
A method for converting non-text files (non-ASCII) into
ASCII. This is needed because Internet e-mail can only
-- (Binary DigIT)
A single digit number in base-2, in other words, either a
1 or a zero. The smallest unit of computerized data.
Bandwidthis usually measured in bits-per-second.
-- (Because It's Time NETwork (or Because It's There
A network of educational sites separate from the Internet,
but e-mail is freely exchanged between BITNET and the
Internet. Listservs®, a popular form of e-mail discussion
groups, originated on BITNET. BITNET machines are usually
mainframes running the VMS operating system, and the
network is probably the only international network that is
A measurement of how fast data is moved from one place to
another. A 56K modem can move about 57,000 bits per
A Client program (software) that is used to look at
various kinds of Internet resources.
-- (By The Way)
A shorthand appended to a comment written in an online
A set of Bits that represent a single character. Usually
there are 8 Bits in a Byte, sometimes more, depending on
how the measurement is being made.
-- (Caffeine Access Transport Protocol)
Common method of moving caffeine across Wide Area Networks
such as the Internet
CATP was first used at the Binary Cafe in Cybertown and
quickly spread world-wide.
There are reported problems with short-circuits and rust
and decaffinated beverages were not supprted until version
An issuer of Security Certificates used in SSL
-- (Common Gateway Interface)
A set of rules that describe how a Web Server communicates
with another piece of software on the same machine, and
how the other piece of software (the CGI program) talks
to the web server. Any piece of software can be a CGI
program if it handles input and output according to the
The most common name of a directory on a web server in
which CGIprograms are stored.
A software program that is used to contact and obtain data
from a Server software program on another computer, often
across a great distance. EachClient program is designed to
work with one or more specific kinds of Server programs,
and each Server requires a specific kind of Client. A Web
Browser is a specific kind of Client.
Most often used to refer to having a server that belongs
to one person or group physically located on an
Internet-connected network that belongs to another person
or group. Usually this is done because the server owner
wants their machine to be on a high-speed Internet
connection and/or they do not want the security risks of
having the server on their own network.
The most common meaning of "Cookie" on the Internet refers
to a piece of information sent by a Web Server to a Web
Browser that the Browser software is expected to save and
to send back to the Server whenever the browser makes
additional requests from the Server.
Depending on the type of Cookie used, and the Browsers'
settings, the Browser may accept or not accept the Cookie,
and may save the Cookie for either a short time or a long
Cookies might contain information such as login or
registration information, online "shopping cart"
information, user preferences, etc.
When a Server receives a request from a Browser that
includes a Cookie, the Server is able to use the
information stored in the Cookie. For example, the Server
might customize what is sent back to the user, or keep a
log of particular users' requests.
Cookies are usually set to expire after a predetermined
amount of time and are usually saved in memory until the
Browser software is closed down, at which time they may be
saved to disk if their "expire time" has not been reached.
Cookies do not read your hard drive and send your life
story to the CIA, but they can be used to gather more
information about a user than would be possible without
Cyberpunk was originally a cultural sub-genre of science
fiction taking place in a not-so-distant, dystopian,
over-industrialized society. The term grew out of the work
of William Gibson and Bruce Sterling and has evolved into
a cultural label encompassing many different kinds of
human, machine, and punk attitudes. It includes clothing
and lifestyle choices as well.
See also: Cyberspace
Term originated by author William Gibson in his novel
Neuromancer the word Cyberspace is currently used to
describe the whole range of information resources
available through computer networks.
The digital version of literati, it is a reference to a
vague cloud of people seen to be knowledgeable, hip, or
otherwise in-the-know in regardsto the digital revolution.
The unique name that identifies an Internet site. Domain
Names always have 2 or more parts, separated by dots. The
part on the left is the most specific, and the part on the
right is the most general. A given machine may have more
than one Domain Name but a given Domain Name points to
only one machine. For example, the domain names:
can all refer to the same machine, but each domain name
can refer to no more than one machine.
Usually, all of the machines on a given Network will have
the same thing as the right-hand portion of their Domain
Names (matisse.net in the examples above). It is also
possible for a Domain Name to exist but not be connected
to an actual machine. This is often done so that a group
or business can have an Internet e-mail address without
having to establish a real Internet site. In these cases,
some real Internet machine must handle the mail on behalf
of the listed Domain Name.
-- (Digital Subscriber Line)
A method for moving data over regular phone lines. A DSL
circuit is much faster than a regular phone connection,
and the wires coming into the subscriber's premises are
the same (copper) wires used for regular phone service. A
DSL circuit must be configured to connect two specific
locations, similar to a leased line (howeverr a DSL
circuit is not a leased line.
A common configuration of DSL allows downloads at speeds
of up to 1.544 megabits (not megabytes) per second, and
uploads at speeds of 128 kilobits per second. This
arrangement is called ADSL: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber
Another common configuration is symmetrical: 384 Kilobits
per second in both directions.
In theory ADSL allows download speeds of up to 9 megabits
per second and upload speeds of up to 640 kilobits per
DSL is now a popular alternative to Leased Lines and ISDN,
being faster than ISDN and less costly than traditional
-- (Electronic Mail)
Messages, usually text, sent from one person to another
via computer. E-mail can also be sent automatically to a
large number of addresses.
A very common method of networking computers in a LAN.
There is more than one type of Ethernet. By 2001 the
standard type was "100-BaseT" which can handle up to about
100,000,000 bits-per-second and can be used with almost
any kind of computer.
An intranet that is accesible to computers that are not
hysically part of a companys' own private network, but
that is not accessible to the general public, for example
to allow vendors and business partners to access a company
Often an intranet will make use of a Virtual Private
-- (Frequently Asked Questions)
FAQs are documents that list and answerthe most common
questions on a particular subject. There are hundreds of
FAQs on subjects as diverse as Pet Grooming and
Cryptography. FAQs are usually written by people who have
tired of answering the same question over and over.
-- (Fiber Distributed Data Interface)
A standard for transmitting data on optical fiber cables
at a rate of around 100,000,000 bits-per-second (10 times
as fast as 10-BaseTEthernet, about twice as fast as T-3).
An Internet software tool for locating people on other
Internet sites. Finger is also sometimes used to give
access to non-personal information, but the most common
use is to see if a person has an account at a particular
Internet site. Many sites do not allow incoming Finger
requests, but many do.
A combination of hardware and software that separates a
Network into two or more parts for security purposes.
Originally, "flame" meant to carry forth in a passionate
manner in the spirit of honorable debate. Flames most
often involved the use of flowery language and flaming
well was an art form. More recently flame has come to
refer to any kind of derogatory comment no matter how
witless or crude.
When an online discussion degenerates into a series of
personal attacks against the debaters, rather than
discussion of their positions. A heated exchange.
-- (File Transfer Protocol)
A very common method of moving files between two Internet
FTP is a way to login to another Internet site for the
purposes of retrieving and/or sending files. There are
many Internet sites that have established publicly
accessible repositories of material that can be obtained
using FTP, by logging in using the account name
"anonymous", thus these sites are called "anonymous ftp
FTP was invented and in wide use long before the advent of
the World Wide Web and originally was always used from a
The technical meaning is a hardware or software set-up
that translates between two dissimilar protocols, for
example America Online has a gateway that translates
between its internal, proprietary e-mail format and
Internet e-mail format. Another, sloppier meaning of
gateway is to describe any mechanism for providing access
to another system, e.g. AOL might be called a gateway to
-- (Graphic Interchange Format)
A common format for image files, especially suitable for
images containing large areas of the same color. GIF
format files of simple images are often smaller than the
same file would be if stored in JPEG format, but GIF
format does not store photographic images as well as JPEG.
1000 or 1024 Megabytes, depending on who is measuring.
Invented at the University of Minnesota in 1993 just
before the Web, gopher was a widely successful method of
making menus of material available over the Internet.
Gopher was designed to be much easier to use than FTP,
while still using a text-only interface.
Gopher is a Client and Server style program, which
requires that the user have a Gopher Client
program. Although Gopher spread rapidly across the globe
in only a couple of years, it has been largely supplanted
by Hypertext, also known as WWW (World Wide Web). There
are still thousands of Gopher Servers on the Internet and
we can expect they will remain for a while.
As used in reference to the World Wide Web, ?hit? means a
single request from a web browser for a single item from a
web server; thus in order for a web browser to display a
page that contains 3 graphics, 4 ?hits? would occur at the
server: 1 for the HTML page, and one for each of the 3
Several meanings. Originally, the web page that your
browser is set to use when it starts up. The more common
meaning refers to the main web page for a business,
organization, person or simply the main page out of a
collection of web pages, e.g. Check out so-and-so's new
Any computer on a network that is a repository for
services available to other computers on the network. It
is quite common to have one host machine provide several
services, such as SMTP (email) and HTTP (web).
-- (HyperText Markup Language)
The coding language used to create Hypertext documents for
use on the World Wide Web. HTML looks a lot like
old-fashioned typesetting code, where you surround a block
of text with codes that indicate how it should appear.
The "hyper" in Hypertext comes from the fact that in HTML
you can specify that a block of text, or an image, is
linked to another file on the Internet. HTML files are
meant to be viewed using a "Web Browser".
HTML is loosely based on a more comprehensive system for
markup called SGML.
-- (HyperText Transfer Protocol)
The protocol for moving hypertextfiles across the
Internet. Requires a HTTP client program on one end, and
an HTTP server program on the other end. HTTP is the most
important protocol used in the World Wide Web (WWW).
Generally, any text that contains links to other documents
- words or phrases in the document that can be chosen by a
reader and which cause another document to be retrieved
-- (Internet Message Access Protocol)
IMAP is gradually replacing POP as the main protocol used
by email clients in communicating with email servers.
Using IMAP an email client program can not only retrieve
email but can also manipulate message stored on the
server, without having to actually retrieve the messages.
So messages can be deleted, have their status changed,
multiple mail boxes can be managed, etc. IMAP is defined
in RFC 2060
-- (In My Humble Opinion)
A shorthand appended to a comment written in an online
forum, IMHO indicates that the writer is aware that they
areexpressing a debatable view, probably on a subject
already under discussion. One of many such shorthands in
common use online, especially in discussion forums.
(Lower case i)
Any time you connect 2 or more networks together, you have
an internet - as in inter-national or inter-state.
(Upper case I)
The vast collection of inter-connected networks that are
connected using the TCP/IP protocols and that evolved from
the ARPANET of the late 60's and early 70's.
The Internet connects tens of thousands of independent
networks into a vast global internet and is probably the
largest Wide Area Network in the world.
A private network inside a company or organization that
uses the same kinds of software that you would find on the
public Internet, but that is only for internal use.
Compare with extranet.
-- (Internet Protocol Number)
Sometimes called a dotted quad. A unique number consisting
of 4 parts separated by dots, e.g.
Every machine that is on the Internet has a unique IP
number - if a machine does not have an IP number, it is
not really on the Internet. Many machines (especially
servers) also have one or more Domain Names that are
easier for people to remember.
-- (Internet Relay Chat)
Basically a huge multi-user live chat facility. There are
a number of major IRC servers around the world which are
linked to each other. Anyone can create a channel and
anything that anyone types in a given channel is seen by
all others in the channel. Private channels can (and are)
created for multi-person conference calls.
-- (Integrated Services Digital Network)
Basically a way to move more dataover existing regular
phone lines. ISDN is available to much of the USA and in
most markets it is priced very comparably to standard
analog phone circuits. It can provide speeds of roughly
128,000 bits-per-second over regular phone lines. In
practice, most people will be limited to 56,000or 64,000
Unlike DSL, ISDN can be used to connect to many different
locations, one at a time, just like a regular telephone
call, as long the other location also has ISDN.
-- (Internet Service Provider)
An institution that provides access to the Internet in
some form, usually for money.
Java is a network-friendly programming language invented
by Sun Microsystems.
Java is often used to build large, complex systems that
involve several different computers interacting across
networks, for example transaction processing systems.
Java is also becoming popular for creating programs that
run in small electronic devices, such as mobile
A very common use of Java is to create programs that can
be safely downloaded to your computer through the Internet
and immediately run without fear of viruses or other harm
to your computer or files. Using small Java programs
(called "Applets"), Web pages can include functions such
as animations, calculators, and
other fancy tricks.
in web pages, usually to add features that make the web
HTML file it relies upon the browser to interpret the
Style Sheets(CSS), and later versions of HTML (4.0 and
later) the result is often called DHTML.
-- (Java Development Kit)
A software development package from Sun Microsystems that
implements the basic set of tools needed to write, test
and debugJava applications and applets
See also: Applet, Java
-- (Joint Photographic Experts Group)
JPEG is most commonly mentioned as a format for image
files. JPEG format is preferred to the GIF format for
photographic images as opposed to line art or simple logo
A thousand bytes. Actually, usually 1024 (210) bytes.
-- (Local Area Network)
A computer network limited to the immediate area, usually
the same building or floor of a building.
Refers to line such as a telephone line or fiber-optic
cable that is rented for exclusive 24-hour, 7-days-a-week
use from your location to another location. The highest
speed data connections require a leased line.
The most common kind of maillist, "Listserv" is a
registered trademark of L-Soft international, Inc.
Listservs originated on BITNET but they are now common on
Noun or a verb.
Noun: The account name used to gain access to a computer
system. Not a secret (contrast with Password).
Verb: the act of connecting to a computer system by giving
your credentials (usually your "username" and "password")
(or Mailing List) A (usually automated) system that allows
people to send e-mail to one address, whereupon their
message is copied and sent to all of the other subscribers
to the maillist. In this way, people who have many
different kinds of e-mail access can participate in
A million bytes. Actually, technically, 1024 kilobytes.
-- (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)
Originally a standard for defining the types of files
attached to standard Internet mail messages. The MIME
standard has come to be used in many situations where one
cmputer programs needs to communicate with another program
about what kind of file is being sent.
For example, HTML files have a MIME-type of text/html,
JPEG files are image/jpeg, etc.
Generally speaking, "to mirror" is to maintain an exact
copy of something. Probably the most common use of the
term on the Internet refers to "mirror sites" which are
web sites, or FTP sites that maintain copies of material
originated at another location, usually in order to
provide more widespread access to the resource. For
example, one site might create a library of software, and
5 other sites might maintain mirrors of that library.
-- (MOdulator, DEModulator)
A device that connects a computer to a phone line. A
telephone for a computer. A modem allows a computer to
talk to other computers through the phone system.
Basically, modems do for computers what a telephone does
-- (Mud, Object Oriented)
One of several kinds of multi-user role-playing
The first WWW browser that was available for the
Macintosh, Windows,and UNIX all with the same interface.
Mosaic really started the popularity of the Web. The
source-code to Mosaic was licensed by several companies
and used to create many other web browsers.
Mosaic was developed at the National Center for
Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), at the Univeristy of
Urbana-Champange in Illinois, USA. The first version was
released in late 1993.
-- (Multi-User Dungeon or Dimension)
A (usually text-based) multi-user simulation environment.
Some are purely for fun and flirting, others are used for
serious software development, or education purposes and
all thatlies in between. A significant feature of most
MUDs is that users can create things that stay after they
leave and which other users can interact within their
absence, thus allowing a world to be built gradually and
-- (Multi-User Simulated Environment)
One kind of MUD - usually with little or no violence.
The etiquette on the Internet.
Derived from the term citizen, referring to a citizen of
the Internet or someone who uses
networked resources. The term connotes civic
responsibility and participation.
A WWW Browser and the name of a company. The Netscape (tm)
browser was originally based on the Mosaic program
developed at the National Center for Supercomputing
Any time you connect 2 or more computers together so that
they can share resources, you have a computer network.
Connect 2 or more networks together and you have an
The name for discussion groups on USENET.
-- (Network Information Center)
Generally, any office that handles information for a
network. The most famous of these on the Internet was the
InterNIC, which was where most new domain names were
registered until that process was decentralized to a
number of private companies.
-- (Network News Transport Protocol)
The protocol used by clientand server software to carry
USENET postings back and forth over a TCP/IP network. If
you are using any of the more common software such as
Netscape, Nuntius, Internet Explorer, etc. to participate
in newsgroups then you are benefiting from an NNTP
See also: Client, Server, TCP/IP
Any single computer connected to a network.
Open Source Software
Open Source Software is software for which the underlying
programming code is available to the users so that they
may read it, make changes to it, and build new versions of
the software incorporating their changes. There are many
types of Open Source Software, mainly differing in the
licensing term under which (altered) copies of the source
code may (or must be) redistributed.
The method used to move data around on the Internet. In
packet switching, all the data
coming out of a machine is broken up into chunks, each
chunk has the address of where it came from and where it
is going. This enables chunks of data from many different
sources to co-mingle on the same lines, and be sorted and
directed along different routes by special machines along
the way. This way many people can use the same lines at
the same time.
You might think of several caravans of trucks all using
the same road system. to carry materials.
A code used to gain access (login) to a locked system.
Good passwords contain letters and non-letters and are not
simple combinations such as virtue7. A good password might
But don't use that one!
A (usually small) piece of software that adds features to
a larger piece of software. Common examples are plug-ins
for the Netscape® browser and web server. Adobe Photoshop®
also uses plug-ins.
-- (Point of Presence, also Post Office Protocol)
Two commonly used meanings:
Point of Presence and Post Office Protocol.
A Point of Presence usually means a city or location where
a network can be connected to, often with dial up phone
lines. So if an Internet company says they will soon have
a POP in Belgrade, it means that they will soon have a
local phone number in Belgrade and/or a place where leased
lines can connect to their network.
A second meaning, Post Office Protocol refers to a way
that e-mail client software such as Eudora gets mail from
a mail server. When you obtain an account from an Internet
Service Provider (ISP) you almost always get a POP account
with it, and it is this POP account that you tell your
e-mail software to use to get your mail. Another protocol
called IMAP is replacing POP for email.
3 meanings. First and most generally, a place where
information goes into or out of a computer, or both. E.g.
the serial port on a personal computer is where a modem
would be connected.
On the Internet port often refers to a number that is part
of a URL, appearing after a colon (:) right after the
domain name. Every service on an Internet server listens
on a particular port number on that server. Most services
have standard port numbers, e.g. Web servers normally
listen on port 80. Services can also listen on
non-standard ports, in which case the port number must be
specified in a URL when accessing the server, so you might
see a URL of the form:
This shows a gopher server running on a non-standard port
(the standard gopher port is 70).
Finally, port also refers to translating a piece of
software to bring it from one type of computer system to
another, e.g. to translate a Windows program so that is
will run on a Macintosh.
Usually used as a marketing term to described a Web site
that is or is intended to be the first place people see
when using the Web. Typically a "Portal site" has a
catalog of web sites, a search engine, or both. A Portal
site may also offer email and other service to entice
people to use that site as their main "point of entry"
(hence "portal") to the Web.
A single message entered into a network communications
-- (Point to Point Protocol)
The most common protocol used to connect home computers to
the Internet over regular phone lines.
Most well known as a protocol that allows a computer to
use a regular telephone line and a modem to make TCP/IP
connections and thus be really and truly on the
A Proxy Server sits in between a Client and the "real"
Server that a Client is trying to use. Client's are
sometimes configured to use a Proxy Server, usually an
HTTP server. The clients makes all of it's requests from
the Proxy Server, which then makes requests from the
"real" server and passes the result back to the Client.
Sometimes the Proxy server will store the results and give
a stored result instead of making a new one (to reduce use
of a Network). Proxy servers are commonly established on
Local Area Networks.
-- (Public Switched Telephone Network)
The regular old-fashioned telephone system.
-- (Request For Comments)
The name of the result and the process for creating a
standard on the Internet. New standards are proposed and
published on the Internet, as a Request For Comments. The
proposal is reviewed by the Internet Engineering Task
Force (http://www.ietf.org/), a consensus-building body
that facilitates discussion, and eventually a new standard
is established, but the reference number/name for the
standard retains the acronym RFC, e.g. the official
standard for e-mail message formats is RFC 822.
A special-purpose computer (or software package) that
handles the connection between 2 or more Packet-Switched
networks. Routers spend all their time looking at the
source and destination addresses of the packets passing
through them and deciding which route to send them on.
See also: Network, Packet Switching
-- (Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line)
A version of DSL where the upload speeds and download
speeds are the same.
A (usually web-based) system for searching the information
available on the Web.
Some search engines work by automatically searching the
contents of other systems and creating a database of the
results. other search engines contains only material
manually approved for inclusion in a database, and some
combine the two approaches.
A chunk of information (often stored as a text file) that
is used by the SSL protocol to establish a secure
A computer, or a software package, that provides a
specific kind of service to client software running on
other computers. The term can refer to a particular piece
of software, such as a WWW server, or to the machine on
which the software is running, e.g. "Our mail server is
down today, that's why e-mail isn't getting out."
A single server machine can (and often does) have several
different server software packages running on it, thus
providing many different servers to clients on the
-- (Serial Line Internet Protocol)
A standard for using a regular telephone line (a serial
line) and a modem to connect a computer as a realInternet
site. SLIP has largely been replaced by PPP.
-- (Switched Multimegabit Data Service)
A standard for very high-speed data transfer.
-- (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
The main protocol used to send electronic mail from server
to server on the Internet.
SMTP is defined in RFC 821 and modified by many later
-- (Simple Network Management Protocol)
A set of standards for communication with devices
connected to a TCP/IP network. Examples of these devices
include routers, hubs, and switches.
SNMP is defined in RFC 1089
Spam (or Spamming)
An inappropriate attempt to use a mailing list, or USENET
or other networked communications facility as if it was a
broadcast medium (which it is not) by sending the same
message to a large number of people who didn?t ask for it.
The term probably comes from a famous Monty Python skit
which featured the word spam repeated over and over. The
term may also have come from someone?s low opinion of the
food product with the same name, which is generally
perceived as a generic content-free waste of resources.
(Spam® is a registered trademark of Hormel Corporation,
for its processed meat product.)
-- (Structured Query Language)
A specialized language for sending queries to databases.
Most industrial-strength and many smaller database
applications can be addressed using SQL. Each specific
application will have its own slightly different version
of SQL implementing features unique to that application,
but all SQL-capable databases support a common subset of
A example of an SQl statement is:
SELECT name,email FROM people_table WHERE contry='uk'
-- (Secure Socket Layer)
A protocol designed by Netscape Communications to enable
encrypted, authenticated communications across the
-- (System Operator)
Anyone responsible for the physical operations of a
computer system or network resource. For example, a System
Administrator decides how often backups and maintenance
should be performed and the System Operator performs those
A leased-line connection capable of carrying data at
1,544,000 bits-per-second. At maximum theoretical
capacity, a T-1 line could move a megabyte in less than 10
seconds. That is still not fast enough for full-screen,
full-motion video, for which you need at least 10,000,000
bits-per-second. T-1 lines are commonly used to connect
large LANs to the Internet.
A leased-line connection capable of carrying data at
44,736,000 bits-per-second. This is more than enough to do
full-screen, full-motion video.
-- (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
This is the suite of protocols that defines the Internet.
Originally designed for the UNIX operating system, TCP/IP
software is now included with every major kind of computer
operating system. To be truly on the Internet, your
computer must have TCP/IP software.
The command and program used to login from one Internet
site to another. The telnet command/program gets you to the
login: prompt of another host.
A device that allows you to send commands to a computer
somewhere else. At a minimum, this usually means a
keyboard and a display screen and some simple circuitry.
Usually you will use terminal software in a personal
computer - the software pretends to be (emulates) a
physical terminal and allows you to type commands to a
computer somewhere else.
A special purpose computer that has places to plug in many
modems on one side, and a connection to a LAN or host
machine onthe other side. Thus the terminal server does
the work of answering the calls and passes the connections
on to the appropriate node. Mostterminal servers can
provide PPP or SLIP services if connected to the Internet.
-- (User Datagram Protocol)
One of the protocols for data transfer that is part of the
TCP/IP suite of protocols. UDP is a "stateless" protocol
in that UDP makes no provision for acknowledgement of
A computer operating system (the basic software running on
a computer, underneath things like word processors and
spreadsheets). Unix is designed to be used by many people
at the same time (it is multi-user) and has TCP/IP
built-in. It is the most common operating system for
servers on the Internet.
Apple computers' Macintosh operating system, as of version
10, is based on Unix.
-- (Uniform Resource Identifier)
An address for s resource available on the Internet.
The first part of a URI is called the "scheme". the most
well known scheme is http, but there are many others. Each
URI scheme has its own format for how a URI should appear.
Here are examples of URIs using the http, telnet, and news
-- (Uniform Resource Locator)
The term URL is basically synonymous with URI. URI has
replaced URL in technical specifications.
-- (Uniform Resource Name)
A URI that is supposed to be available for along time. For
an address to be a URN some institution is supposed to
make a commitment to keep the resource available at that
A world-wide system of discussion groups, with comments
passed among hundreds of thousands of machines. Not all
USENET machines are on the Internet. USENET is completely
decentralized, with over 10,000 discussion areas, called
-- (Unix to Unix Encoding)
A method for converting files from Binaryto ASCII (text)
so that they can be sent across the Internet via e-mail.
-- (Very Easy Rodent Oriented Net-wide Index to
Developed at the University of Nevada, Veronica was a
constantly updated database of the names of almost every
menu item on thousands of gopherservers. The Veronica
database could be searched from most major gophermenus.
Now made obsolete by web-bases search engines.
-- (Virtual Private Network)
Usually refers to a network in which some of the parts are
connected using the public Internet, but the data sent
across the Internet is encrypted, so the entire network is
-- (Wide Area Information Servers)
A commercial software package that allows the indexing of
huge quantities of information, and then making those
indices searchable across networks such as the Internet. A
prominent feature of WAIS is that the search results are
ranked (scored) accordingto how relevant the hits are, and
that subsequent searches can find more stuff like that
last batch and thus refine the search process.
-- (Wide Area Network)
Any internet or network that covers an area larger than a
single building or campus.
-- (World Wide Web)
Frequently used (incorrectly) when referring to "The
Internet", WWW has two major meanings - First, loosely
used: the whole constellation of resources that can be
accessed using Gopher, FTP, HTTP,
telnet, USENET, WAIS and some other tools. Second,
the universe of hypertext servers (HTTP servers) which are
the servers that allow text, graphics, sound files, etc.
to be mixed together.
-- (eXtensible Markup Language)
A widely used system for defining data formats. XML
provides a very rich system to define complex documents
and data structures such as invoices, molecular data, news
feeds, glossaries, inventory descriptions, real estate
As long as a programmer has the XML definition for a
collection of data (often called a "schema") then they can
create a program to reliably process any data formatted
according to those rules.
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